Leaders are born or learned to lead. In the organizational context it is the process throughwhich individual reach at success or failure while responsible for others (Mullin, 2010). Another way to put the leadership definition is it is a collaborative approach through which it leads the organization by adopting the different leadership style and behaviour (Ibarra & Hansen, 2011). Although there are multiple leaders those had different style and approach to manage works and make its organizational successful at regional and international level. Some of the Indian great leaders are Mr. Ratan TATA, Mr. K. P Singh , D Ambani etc. simultaneously there are international one for example Mr. Steve Jobs, Mr. Bill Gates and Most famous Mr. Warren Buffet.
All the above leaders have some unique quality which they have got as they born and some they have learned over the years. For example like a Ratan TATA and Indian pioneer of the Indian industry, has great listening and risk taking capabilities which makes him successful. He was never so charismatic like today however able to manage the largest business house in India for several years because of his transformational leadership style (Irani, 2013). In the similar ways Mr. Mark Zukerberg is a genuine leader who born as a transactional leader, who believe in Work Harder and Party harder. Both the leaders have one similarly, they both goes for new innovation to frequently, they both are very calm & Compose in almost every difficult situation, They both have been great listening skills, Both are dedicated and passionate about their work and both are successful.
I have got first lesson of the leadership in my school, where I always thinking how a teacher able to manage the large group of students and when I will be in that situations. I always found they have great listening skills, and knowledge which makes them my favourite teacher. My teacher recognized my leadership skills during the teacher’s day celebration which I have managed being a class mentor. I got the feedback that I have great team management skills, and I was able to communicate effectively with the entire group. That surprised me and gave me sense of satisfaction & achievement.
Then I have grown and started understanding finance, and the first lesson that I have learned from my mom in finance that how to run home within budget, how we control our spending at the same time our demand also get fulfilled. Third lesson I learned from professor during My MBA College too much focus on reflection what they teach, ethics, and continuous learning and improvements. Gradually I also get exposed to corporate world, world that running after client, customer, stakeholders, government, and societies. Similar to the school, I have taken new initiative during my colleges where I have tried to create student forum where they exchange their ideas, class work, learning however that not succeeded because most of the students started believing that it is waste of time and it does not make any sense for them to share notes, gather assignment. I understood I have not gone extra mile; I have wasted one opportunity because of my commitment. These became learning for me, which I believe essential for being a leader.
I have often got a feedback that I am very collaborative with other when it’s comes to real work, collaborative which required me to sometime tough, some time tactical, sometime polite which makes me democratic style leader. I often get feedback from the subordinates during the group assignment and the friends that I am good in managing larger group while taking them and influencing them for the work and ideas. As a management student graduate employers are expecting that their employees well aware the management structure and the control they also assume that students have been taught over the organizational structure, performance management, recruitment & selection, team work etc. these are the softer issue however very important from the organizational point of view.My long term objective is become entrepreneur, and for that I am developing the leadership skills to manage the finance, HR, marketing and operation function effectively. Democratic style has the lot of strength however there are certain weakness also it carried. To conclude I would after reading through this module my perception of leadership has been changed, from the style perspective, I am trying develop situational or transformation leadership style in the changing working lifestyle. This is only happened because of the module where I have learned and able to see the pros and cons about the leadership, role of leadership in change management, and the ethics which become essential of the business.
Ibarra, H, & Hansen, M (2011), ‘Are You a Collaborative Leader?’ Harvard Business Review [online], 89, 7/8, pp. 68-74
Mullins, L.J. (2010), Management and Organisational Behaviour, 9th Edition, Harlow:Pearson Higher Education
Irani., J Jamshed (2013) “‘He would never thump the table”,Retrived from http://businesstoday.intoday.in/story/j.j.-irani-on-ratan-tata-leadership-style/1/191230.html
Cherry, K. 2013. about.com-psychology. Lewin’s Leadership, 10Tata.com. 2007. Risk-taker’s dream via @tatacompanies. [online] Available at:
http://www.tata.com/company/Media/inside.aspx?artid=YUOAylsAPr8= [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].
Drath, W. 1994. Making common sense leadership: leadership as meaning making in a community of practice. Greensboro: Center for creative leadership, p. 39.
Ethics word came from the Greek word “ethos” which described as custom habit or novelhabit (Holjevac; 2009). There are several researcher and philosophers discussed it as a vital sign for not only human, but also for the corporate & society to perform their duties with the great transparency and responsibility (Holjevac; 2009). Researcher Taylor stated that the ethics means judgment made by individual, principles followed by society and human behavioral (Taylor, 1975, p. 1). Researcher Trevino et.al (2000) described that to create the ethical environment, leaders and manager play a very important role and they referred this term as a moral manager. Based on Robin et al (2010) research ethical leadership right conduct though the leaders take decision, make action and create interpersonal relationship.
Social learning theory throws lights on ethical leadership and its impact on the organization and at the individual level (Brown & Trevino 2010). The theory described if the leaders conducts ethically, he become role models for employees and peers very quickly. Also it impacts thinking of the individual leaders. Because most of the individuals are taking ethical reference from the outside world (Kohlberg, 1969 Cited by Brown & Trevino 2010), ethical leaders consider as a source of information, guidance and that is because of their ethical characteristics and role model (Bandura, 1986). At the personal level ethical leaders become extremely credible because they most of time consider as trustworthy and follow what they preach (Newman, 2011).
Taking example of DLF and Indian real estate organization, committed towards ethical leadership. Despite of the construction industry the company has won the customer, stakeholder, society and its employees trust because of their ethical policy. Company has three fold policy Board of directors are ensure they set right ethical example, while treating government, customer and employee fairly, and ensuring there are monitoring happen to ensure morality in the DLF. As highlighted in the research done by Ciullan (1995), senior leader has to take wider responsibilities to create transparent and ethical environment while using the long term vision, communication and culture in the account. Taking example of Mr. KP Sing founder of DLF, he often considers as one the great Indian real estate leader (Choudhury, 2012). He consider as the charismatic, knowledgeable and inspire leaders, and why is successful because he followed ethics diligently. While doing not Mr. KP singh has build the solid foundation for the company, and become India’s number one real estate company not in terms of revenue but also brand creditability, quality and customer reference (Forbes, 2011).
He created an open culture system in the organization, and picked only employee those are qualified and attach to the ground level realities, to ensure that their construction manager knows that there are several thousands of workers are also working. Mr. Singh able to create a centralized decision making model against of all odds to monitor ethics very closely. He is role model of entire real estate Industry, who know for ethics, aggression and how to take a best out from centralized decision making process (Choudhury, 2012). This has helped the organization to the large extent as well, his charismatic leadership style and persona not able to influence the top Indian and foreign bureaucrats but to the extent customer and employees also. His philosophy to become partner of government in urbanization of India consider as huge successful (Singh, 2013). At the personal front because of his ethical behavior and transparency, he became one richest real estate person.
Ethical leadership is a value addition for the organization, which not only able to win the trust of the customer, but become the role model of various employees and become trustworthy person by himself/herself.
To conclude at the age of changing business need, working, customer environment, and performance driven organization. It is not easy to come out from the ethical dilemma, therefore Moral awareness become central point of the ethical decision making process (Johns, 1991). Although it is important for ethical leaders to before taking any decision at given situation they understand the magnitude of consequences on himself, firm and the others. Whenever there are harms exist in the decision making process, and the situation handle in appropriate manner which is also win trust from the follower than leader consider as the ethical leader. In current time not only organization looking for ethical leadership which help them to take best decision on behalf of management and stakeholders but also institute trying to identify the ethical students who tend to be more ethical in their studies and create the future decision model for leaders.
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2. Choudhury, Gaurav (2012) “A leader inspires people with his knowledge, spirit” Retrived from http://www.hindustantimes.com/business-news/Features/A-leader-inspires-people-with-his-knowledge-spirit/Article1-832248.aspx
4. Singh, Y. (2013) “Standing Tall” http://www.cioandleader.com/digital_assets/75/CIO-LEADER-Vol-2-Issue-05-May13.pdf
5. Jones, T. M. (1991). Ethical decision making by individuals in organizations: An issue contingent model. Academy of Management Review, 16, 366−395.
6. Newman, R. 2011. “Where Steve Jobs Ranks Among the Greats”. U.S. News Digital Weekly, 3(40), 21.
7. Holjevac, I. A. (2009). Business ethics in tourism- As a dimension of TQM. Total Quality Management, 19(10), 1029-1041.
8. Pettijohn, C., Pettijohn, L., & Taylor, A. J., (2009). Salesperson perceptions of ethical behaviors: Their influence on job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 545-557.
9. Rubin, R., Dierdorff, E, and Brown, M. 2010” Do Ethical Leaders Get Ahead? Exploring Ethical Leadership and Promotability”. Business Ethics Quarterly. [online] 20, 2, pp 215-36.
10. Treviño K.,Linda (2006) “Ethical leadership: A review and future directions” Accessed from www.elsevier.com/locate/leaqua
As Benjamin Disraeli (1867) described “Change is inevitable”! This statement is valid for countries, and organization both as both are changing over the period of time. Measuring these changes is also important to analyse that why it occurred and what are the important factors that can be learnt from these changes. One of the frameworks provided by Author William (2012) there are three types of changes first is developmental change for the organizations, second are transitional changes and third are Transformational changes. These changes have some similar attributes to the leadership style. For example development change only happen at organization level when need of improvement recognized and that occur at the ground level frequently and further get implemented from the Top. Transitional change occur when organization recognize entire new work follow and implement that for betterment, in this circumstance also leader take entire ownership of success and failure for the new workflow and transformation change occur when some strategy become necessary when organization failed to deliver and as a learning they implement the process, leaders role are again important here to recognize their failure and start a fresh (William, 2012).
Role of manager is important, in every process of organizational change. This can be understand from the transactional grid which four phases first is Denial, Second is Resistance , third is exploration and fourth the commitment as depicted below in the figure (Beitler,2005)
Figure: 1 Four Phase of Organizational Change (Beitler, 2005)
Managers role become more important in the change process, particularly in the troubling times (Boomer 2012). Mullins (2012) described in his book organizational resistance particularly during the change process arises because of two factors one is organizational resistance that occur because of the culture of the organization, stability, financial option, past contracts an agreements and power of influence. And second resistance occurred at the individual levels because of the Perception, Habit, and Inconvenience, Economic problem, social security and unknown outcome.
Based on the change management theory, manager can use the best practices to overcome from the resistance of change. Based on the Kotler’s eight step model mange the resistance (Kotter, 1996, referenced by Burnes 2009:388) and these are
– Increasing the importance for organizational change.
– Structuring the team for the change
– Creating the long term and short term goal for leading change
– Establishing the communication to manage the change
– Empowerment of team
– Persistence about the change
– Establishing the change
Above framework help leaders to overcome from the resistance, factor such as increasing the importance for organizational change, help the leaders to showcase the need of change with the entire group before even start that, similarly manager can restructure the existing team to increase the awareness for change to ensure that resistance ruled out. Similarly manager need to create the short term and long term goal for the leading change and managing resistance for the organization, Manager need to understand the and should be confident on the goal that they are try to driving for the company. Taking example from Steve Jobs after even failure, manage and resistance to the change because of his understand about the organizational goal. Similarly, Peters (2011), proposed the 7S model for organizational change proposed in McKinsey consulting conclave. In the proposed strategy leaders need to must have seven skills in manager to resistance the change. These are Shared Values, Strategy, Structure, Systems, Style, Staff and skills. Taking example of DLF (Indian Real Estate Company), company has gone through the major changes in the recent past for example its decision to not sponsor the Indian Premier League (IPL) major cricket events in India had created major rift between the marketing and sales team. Sales team was in favour of the sponsorship however management was not keen on because of the huge cost implication (Rathore, 2013).